Keeping track of users
What are sessions, and why do we need them?
HTTP is, by itself, a stateless protocol. That means it doesn’t keep track of information or change much in-between requests. You should see the conundrum implicated by this if you look at the fact that practically every application on the web does keep track of information - namely, they mostly keep track of you. If facebook was purely stateless, it wouldn’t be able to recognise that you were logged in from one page to another - and probably wouldn’t be very popular!
A session then, is simply the name web developers usually give to the mechanism that lets you do this when serving (running) a web application.
If you’d like to know how it works, the web server is usually instructed to send your browser a HTTP cookie along with the page content, when you visit. The cookie holds a unique value - that your browser will send back to the server with every request - that the application can then look up and re-identify you with when you ask for another page.
In case you were wondering, when we run flask, it is acting as both a web server and the web application (nicely bundled together to be easy to use!).
So flask has sessions, right? How does one use them?
It sure does, and they’re very simple to use. Firstly, add
session as another module to import from the
from flask import session
Then you need to give flask a secret key to use, to make sure the session is secure. To get a nice secret key, run this at a command prompt:
python -c "import os; print repr(os.urandom(24))"
and copy the string you get. To set this as the flask app’s secret key, just add the following line after you initialize your
app (use your own key!):
app.secret_key = '#d\xe9X\x00\xbe~Uq\xebX\xae\x81\x1fs\t\xb4\x99\xa3\x87\xe6.\xd1_'
You can now use the
session that you imported, just as you would a dictionary - anywhere in your application. It will be a special dictionary, in that any key/value you set will be specific only for the user you set it to. When a different user visits your server, it will hold their own value (or not be there).
How can we use this? Let’s say we would like users to be able to delete their own email off of the email list.
First, we have to modify the
signup() route to remember the user’s email address in the session:
@app.route('/signup', methods = ['POST']) def signup(): email = request.form['email'] email_addresses.append(email) session['email'] = email print(email_addresses) return redirect('/')
You can see that we simply added a line to save that email to our session dictionary.
Then we can create a new route, that the user can visit to delete their address.
@app.route('/unregister') def unregister(): # Make sure they've already registered an email address if 'email' not in session: return "You haven't submitted an email!" email = session['email'] # Make sure it was already in our address list if email not in email_addresses: return "That address isn't on our list" email_addresses.remove(email) del session['email'] # Make sure to remove it from the session return 'We have removed ' + email + ' from the list!'
Here, we use a few
if checks to make sure that our user added an email address already, and it’s in our list. We can’t remove it otherwise! Read through the code and the comments careful to make sure you understand what’s happening.
Try out the new functionality! Add an email address, and then visit
/unregister in your web browser. When you next look at the list, your email address should have been removed!
/unregisterroute to be a POST method only. Normally URLs that change data should only be POSTed to - otherwise a user might be tricked into changing data just from their browser accessing a link! After that, add a button / form on your main page that can send a POST to that route so your users can still unregister their email address.
Allow the app to remember when a user has already registered their email, and not show them an email input form when they have (maybe say Thanks! for signing up). Check out the Jinja2 template documentation if you’d like to use a little template logic to help with this. You could change the above button so that it also only shows after registering an email.
Add a “protected” page which allows you to delete any email address, and a very simple admin login system (with just a single password) to access it. You can use a session to determine whether someone is currently logged in or not. This might be a little more difficult, but any challengers are welcome to try it out! You can check out the code sample here for some hints on how to go about that.
Integrate these features into using your databases as needed